HACCP Good Manufacturing Practices

Personnel


Meat processing companies will need written guidelines and programs for the personnel that work in the food production facilities. GMP's for personnel should cover disease control, cleanliness, education and training, and supervision. All employees that work in the food production areas of the plant should be aware of the plant GMP's for personnel. This may be accomplished by providing information during the interview process of hiring of employees, by an intensive training session after hiring a new employee (Figure 2) and by educational updates on a yearly or as needed basis.

Meat processing companies will need written guidelines and programs for the personnel that work in the food production facilities. GMP's for personnel should cover disease control, cleanliness, education and training, and supervision. All employees that work in the food production areas of the plant should be aware of the plant GMP's for personnel. This may be accomplished by providing information during the interview process of hiring of employees, by an intensive training session after hiring a new employee (Figure 2) and by educational updates on a yearly or as needed basis.

Brochure

Figure 2. Education and Training for Employees

Disease control is an important aspect of food safety. Any person that is ill should not be working with food production. Some processing plants have standard a policy requiring employees to get a doctors approval to return to work if they miss two or more work days due to sick leave. Addition production employees should not have open lesions, included boils, sores or infected wounds. Both illnesses and open lesions could be a source of microbial contamination for the food or the food-contact surfaces.

Personnel in the production area will also need to practice many things related to cleanliness (Figure 3). This would include outer garments, personal cleanliness, washing hands, removing jewelry, maintaining gloves, wearing hairnets, storing of personal belongings, and excluding such things a gum, tobacco and makeup from the food production area.

Meat

Figure 3. Practice Proper Personnel Cleanliness

Many meat processing companies in the United States provide production employees withproper clean outer garments. In some facilities outer garments are color coded to ensure that employees from the uncooked segment of production are clearly identified from employees in the cooked segment of the facility. Removing jewelry that might fall into food products and result in a physical hazard or microbial contamination.

Production and Process Control

This subpart describes the most detailed requirements. It includes a large section on processes and controls and a small section on warehousing and distribution.

The section on processes and controls has two major subdivisions: (a) raw materials and other ingredients; and (b) manufacturing operations. The first subsection has descriptions of required inspection, storage and handling of ingredients. Specific information regarding the treatment of ingredients subject to microbiological activity and the handling of ingredients subject to aflatoxin or other toxins is provided. Requirements on storage of frozen raw materials and ingredients, and bulk liquid and dry ingredients are also given. The manufacturing operations subsection requires conditions and controls necessary to minimize the potential for growth of microorganisms, or for the contamination of food. Monitoring of factors such as time, temperature, humidity, water activity, pH, pressure and flow rates is important for the control of conditions. The following requirements for holding foods are given in this subsection:

(a) Refrigerated foods must be kept at or under 45' F (7.2 0 C) as appropriate for the particular food involved.
(b) Frozen foods must be maintained in a frozen state.
(c) Hot foods must be kept at or above 140o F (60o C).

The manufacturing operations subsection also requires the establishment of measures that prevent the finished food product from contamination by raw materials, other ingredients, refuse and metal or other foreign materials.

The section on warehousing and distribution requires that the transportation and storage operations are conducted under conditions that prevent physical, chemical and microbiological contamination.

Buildings and Facilities

The general principles of plant design and construction is necessary to assure sanitary conditions are given in the plant and grounds section of this subpart. Adequate lighting and ventilation are required under this subpart.

The sanitary operations section establishes general maintenance requirements and provides specific requirements regarding the storage and use of cleaning and sanitizing agents and other toxic substances (Figure 4). Pest control and the storage and handling of cleaned equipment and utensils are also addressed.

Bottles

Figure 4. Proper Storage of Chemicals in a Food Production Facility

In the sanitary facilities and controls section minimum requirements are established for: water supply, plumbing, sewage disposal, toilet facilities, hand-washing facilities and rubbish and offal disposal.

Equipment

In this subpart the general principles of design, construction and maintenance of equipment and utensils are described. Protection against contamination of food with lubricants, fuel, metal fragments, contaminated water and other contaminants must be provided. Easiness of cleaning and maintenance of clean conditions are emphasized.

Instrumentation used to control critical parameters like pH, temperature and water activity must be accurate and adequately maintained.

Defect Action Levels

The last subpart of 21 CFR I 10 covers natural or unavoidable defects in food for human use that present no health hazard. The FDA recognizes that defects can be present in foods produced under current good manufacturing practices (GMPs). The FDA has established maximum levels for these defects and uses them in deciding whether to recommend regulatory action. These FDA guidelines cannot be used as an excuse for not following the GMPs. Defect action levels are not listed in the CFR; however, subsection (e) in section 110. 110 provides information on how to obtain a current list.

Table 1. Sections of 21 CFR 110 with umbrella GMPS

 
Section Category
Subpart A-General Provisions
110.3 Definitions

110.5
Current good manufacturing practice
110.10 Personnel
110.19 Exclusions
Subpart B-Buildings and Facilities
110.20 Plant and grounds
110.35 Sanitary operations
110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls

Subpart C-Equipment

110.40 Equipment and utensils
Subpart E-Production and Process Controls
110.80 Processes and controls
110.93 Warehousing and distribution
Subpart G-Defect Action Levels
110.110 Natural or unavoidable defects in food for human use that present no health hazard

Example: SOP 7: Automatic Labeling Machine

For daily cleaning:
1. Remove all debris and physical matter using a squeegee.
2. Wipe with a clean cloth dipped in a mild soapy detergent.
3. Mist lightly with a 200 ppm quaternary ammonium compounds (QUATS) solution.
4. Let air dry.
5. Inspect machine to make sure it is clean.

For weekly breakdown:
1 . Call maintenance to lock out all electrical sources and remove all access panels.
2. Remove all particulate matter from inside and outside panels and all exposed machine parts.
3. Spray with alkaline soapy detergent solution. Let it work for 15 minutes.
4. Rinse with clean water.
5. Let air dry.
6. Mist lightly with a 200 ppm QUATS solution.
7. Let air dry.
8. Inspect machine to make sure all parts are clean.
9. Call maintenance to put machine back together.

Corrective Action:

  • If particulate matter is found on any area of the machine upon inspection, repeat clean-up procedure as detailed above for that particular area.
  • If machine fails to start after weekly breakdown, call maintenance. Do not attempt to fix machine!

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP's)

Introduction

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) are two tools for a meat processing facility that help for the production of high quality and safe meat products. The programs established for GMP's and SOP's will provide the basis for other programs the help to assure the level of product quality such as standards for ISO 9000 and for product safety in the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. Many companies like to view these systems as a pyramid (Figure 1.) with the GMP's and SOP's supporting the more advanced program of HACCP and all three programs being important for the ISO 9000 system.

iso9000

Figure 1. GMP's and SOP's form the foundation for the hazard analysis and critical control point system (HACCP) and ISO 9000.

GMP's and SOP's are not clearly separated as one may overlap the other. GMP's are ususally referred to as practices and procedures performed by a food processor which can affect the safety of the meat or food product. GMP's may refer to the people, equipment, process and the environment in the production process. SOP's may be thought of as one person's job or one task that is preformed in the production process.

GMP's are written into food regulations in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for most food products produced. Rules and regulations established by FDA are published in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in Chapter 1, Part 110. In this regulation the term current good manufacturing practices is used and the criteria and definitions used apply to determining whether a food is adulterated; whether the food has been prepared, packed or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth; or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health. The regulations address personnel, buildings and facilities, equipment and utensils, and production and process controls. These rules are not applied to meat processing facilities under the USDA FSIS in the United States, but provide an excellent framework for meat processing companies to establish GMP's in their production plants.

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) within the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the regulatory agency with enforcement over the meat processing industry. Rules and regulations to sanitation standard operation procedures established by FSIS are published in Title 9 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in Chapter 3, Part 416. Part 416 includes guidelines for grounds and facilities, equipment and utensils, employee hygiene and for Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures.